Grape

Table Grape

Grape is shrub belonging to the Ampelidaceas family, from the Vitis vinifera L. genera.

Grape is a woody plant, with woody, short and thick stems, very crooked and with many knots. Leaves are opposed, etiolated, with five or seven lobes and have polished and waxy skin. The root system is rather deep, observing true roots (deeper) and the adventitious roots (at soil surface). The fruit is a berry with seeds inside, and the endosperm occupies the greatest part of the pericarp (locule).

Grape produces woody stems per year (vine shoots), and this branches are the only capable of producing fruitful shoots, commonly named mix shoots, due to that bear shoots and fruits from axillary buds (ready bud).

Vine shoots are originated from winter buds. These are composed from various structures (primary and secondary buds, scales, beginnings of stipules and bracts, beginnings of leaves and inflorescence and scale trichomes). The apical meristem of the primary bud differentiates beginnings of leaves, stipules, inflorescence and bracts before starting dormancy. The induction and differentiation of buds that will produce productive buds of the next year, coincides with the last fruit growing stage of this year season, developing a vegetative and reproductive cycle simultaneously in the same year. Therefore, this is a critical stage in the grape cycles, in which a carbohydrates and nutrients competence is originated. Then, the reserve substances stored by the winter buds in this developing stage, represent an important factor for the next season productivity, also the environmental conditions present during the winter recess (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Necrosis produced in winter buds
Figure 1. Necrosis produced in winter buds
Frost could affects early sprouting in the season. The minimum daily temperature for sprouting is 10,5°C, for flowering 18.4°C and for fruit maturity, 22,5°C. The accumulation of degree days (effective temperature for promoting development) is an important factor for grape, requiring to accumulate between 3,200 to 4,000 degree days from beginning sprouting to complete maturity. The plant prefers lighter and deep soils with good drainage, being frequent the utilization of ridges for protecting the root system from diseases which affect the roots and the crown of the plant. Rainfalls in key periods such as flowering and fruit set, can produce considerable losses in fruit production. Besides, in periods from veraison to harvest, humid condition and high temperatures can favor the development of grape rotting, caused by Botrytis cinerea (grey mould).

The conduction systems used are the following: shape pruning (during the first year), shape and production pruning (in the first and third year), and the green pruning.

• Shape pruning: the objective is to incentive rapid development of 2 to 4 main branches.

• Shape and maturity pruning: it is a winter operation; the cutting length is defined by the fertility of the fruit buds that were induced already and the ones differentiated during the previous season.

• Green pruning: the objective is to reduce the excess of vigor for avoiding the bushy growth. This improves buds fertility of the fruit branches since there is a greater light penetration to the vine shoots, at same time improving the fruit condition (aeration and color).

Main Nutrients
The application of balanced nutrition aims to ensure adequate aerial and root growth to store as much carbohydrate in specialized organs. Adequate nutrition of the crop is a key factor in obtaining good harvests.

Phenological curve of grape
To achieve an appropriate nutrition plan in grape is necessary to know the nutrient demand in quantity and type of nutrient. It is also important to know the role of each nutrient for crop growth, yield and quality of production.

The vegetative and reproductive growing rate of grape present the following shape:

The figure shows that the first stages of grape present a rapid vegetative growth, becoming stabilized as time progresses. The root growing, presents two peaks, first at the flowering time and second at harvest. The reproductive growing starts at flowering, at the time that fruit begins to develop.

Phenological curve of grape

Phase 1 (from buds swelling to beginning flowering) presents mayor absorption of K, Ca and N, having these three nutrients a similar absorption tendency in the plant; and a minor absorption of P an Mg, also with similar absorption values among them. This tendency continues until the half part of Phase 2 (from beginning flowering to veraison) when there is a drastic increase in K absorption, reaching a peak, after which descends as harvest approaches. In Phase 3 (from veraison to berry maturity – harvest) there is a drop in the absorption levels of every nutrient with the exception of P, which slightly increases from veraison to harvest. Then at post-harvest (the lowest values are recorded for every nutrients in relation to the ones initially presented), begins a new tendency to increase the absorption levels for macronutrients by the plant (Phase 4, postharvest when leaves drop starts).

A chart with the absorption of some of the most important nutrients is presented as follows:

Days after sprouting

The figure shows that the absorption of Mn as well as Zn and Cu increase from the beginning of sprouting, reaching a peak after harvest. Mn obtains higher absorption levels than the other two nutrients, maintaining Zn and Cu more o less even through the crop development.

A descriptive chart of nutrients requirements for every developing phase of grape is presented as follows:

Developing Phase

Nutrients Requirement

Phase 1:
Sprouting - initial flowering

Nitrogen and Potassium: Promote initial vigorous growth and maximun foliar development, essential in this phase to favor higher yield.
Phosphorus: Maintains long time productivity.
Calcium: Support growth of new leaves and buds.
Magnesium: Keeps maximun photosynthetic activity and early growth.
Sulphur and Manganese: Maximize photosynthetic activity.
Iron: Strong development of leaves and crop productivity.
Boron and Zinc: Assure good growth of vines and a good set. In case of Boron, it is necessary us very small quantities (lower than 0.05 ppm in the irrigation water, since it is important to avoid toxicities). When Zinc is absorbed by the roots, it is important to control their growth and avoid, diseases. Also, Zinc deficiencies decrease the absorption of Manganese, and then, normally both deficiences are present simultaneously.
Molybdenum: Favors maximun flower development.

Phase 2:
Initial Flowering - Fuit set - Veraison

Nitrogen: Assures fruit set and initial grain developing.
Potassium: Develops maximum potential.
Calcium: Keeps healthy plant growth and fruit production.
Magnesium: Sustains growth and grain development.
Boron and Zinc: Healthy and Higher fruit development.

Conduct foliar analyses at flowering and veraison. In this phase the 1th Peak of root growth is produced, then it is important adequate levels of Phosphorus and Calcium.

Phase 3:
Veraison - Berry Maturity - Harvest

Nitrogen: Promotes leave formation for maximum harvest potential and improves grape color.
Potassium: Assures a good and strong fruit set, increases sugar content of grape, obtaining better maturity and gaining berry caliber, providing a greater Potassium-Nitrogen relation for decreasing Botrytis incidence.
Calcium: Guarantees a resistant skin, lower weight losses, less chattering and lower rotting, as a result improves berry improves berry quality and condition. Decreases the incidence of physiological disorders and diseases.
Magnesium: Reduces to a minimum the incidence of stem bunch necrosis.
Boron: Improves shape, size and grape sugar content.
Zinc and Iron: Increase grape sugar content.

Phase 4:
Post-harvest - Initial leaves drop

Nitrogen: Accumulation of crops Nitrogen reserves before dormancy.
Phosphorus: favors root development after harvest, promoting cellular division and energy transferring.
Calcium: Supports root growth and maturity of woody parts after harvest (wood hardening).
The 2nd peak of root growth is produced (Figure 2), Phosphorus and Calcium are required. Control deficiencies of Zinc and Boron to avoid phytotoxicities.
Conduct soul analyses to check fertility

Nutritional Recommendation
An adequate supply of nutrients to plants should incorporate both macronutrients and micronutrients. SQM in the selection of specialty plant nutrition (SPN) that offers the following alternatives available according to the route of application (fertigation, soil or foliar):

Application via fertirriego: Line of Ultrasol® products.

Application Via

Commercial Product

Chemical Form

Fertirrigation

Ultrasol® Sop 52

Potash Sulphate (KSO4)

Ultrasol® K

Potash Nitrate (KNO3)

Ultrasol® Special order
Ultrasol® Special

KNO3and specialty soluble mix NPK to be order for fertirriego (KNO3based)

Ultrasol® Calcium

Calcium Nitrate (CaNO3)


Foliar application via: Speedfol™ products line(*).

Commercial Product

Application Dosis

Number and Time Application

Speedfol™ Amino Starte SC

5 l/ha

3 applications:
1ª at buding stage - 15 cm buds.
2ª at buding stage - 20-50 cm buds.
3ª at post-harvest.

Speedfol™ Mg SC

2 a 5 l/ha

3 applications:
1ª at buding stage - 20-50 cm buds.
2ª two weeeks after the 1th application.
3ª at post-harvest.

Speedfol™ Amino Flower & Fruit SC

5 l/ha

4 applications:
1ª at buding stage - 20-50 cm buds (for replacing Speedfol™ Amino Starter SC.
Later applications, from and between of giberelic acid (AG3) applications.

Speedfol™ Amino Calmag Plus SC

5 l/ha

5 applications:
1ª at buding stage - 20-50 cm buds, to reinforce the action of Speedfol™ Amino Flower & Fruit SC in controlling spring fever.
2ª 14 days after.
3ª berry - 4-5 mm.
4ª together with 2nd application of AG3
5ª at veraison.

Speedfol™ B SP

3 kg/ha

2 applications:
1ª one week after buding stage - 20-50 cm buds.
2ª during post-harvest.

Speedfol™ Zn SC

0.6 - 1 l/ha

3 applications:
1ª one week after buding stage - 20-50 cm buds.
2ª one week after first application.
3ª during post-harvest.

Speedfol™ Zn+Mn SC

1.2 - 2 l/ha

3 applications:
The some as Speedfol™ Zn SC when an important Mn deficiency is present.

Speedfol™ Amino Calmag SL

10 l/ha

3 applications:
1ª two weeks after buding stage - 20-50 cm buds
2ª during the 1th AG3 application (4-5 mm berry).
3ª during the 2nd AG3 application (8 days after the 1th AG3 application).

Speedfol™ Ca SC

3 l/ha

1 application two weeks after buding stage - 20-50 cm buds.

Speedfol™ K SL

5 l/ha

3 applications:
1ª when buds have 20-50 cm.
2ª during the first AG3application (4-5 mm berries).
3ª during veraison.

Speedfol™ Marine SL

10 l/ha

3 applications:
1ª when buds have 20-50 cm.
2ª during 1th AG3application (4-5 mm berries)
3ª during 2nd application.

Speedfol™ Amino Vegetative SC

5 l/ha

During post-harvest. It could replace Speedfol™ Amino Starter SC


Rexene® is a registered trademark of Azkanobel Chemicals BV or one of its affiliated companies in one or more territories.

Chemical Form

Chelate
Agent

Typical
metal
content
(% p/p)

Physical Form

Electric
Conductivity
(E.C)(mS/cm)
to 1g/l

Common
applications *

Observations

IRON CHALATES (Fe)

Ultrasol® Micro Rexene® FeM48

EDDHMA

6,5

Micro-granular

0,6

S/H

High grade: 4,8% Fe en orto-orto

Ultrasol® Micro Rexene® FeM35

EDDHMA

6,5

Micro-granular

0,6

S/H

Standard grade: 3,5% Fe en orto-orto

Ultrasol® Micro Rexene® FeQ48

EDDHA

6,0

Micro-granular

0,6

S/H

High grade: 4,8% Fe en orto-orto

Ultrasol® Micro Rexene® FeQ48

EDDHA

6,0

Micro-granular

0,6

S/H

Standard grade: 4,0% Fe en orto-orto

Ultrasol® Micro Rexene® FeQ15

EDDHA

7,0

Micro-granular

0,6

S

Basec grade: 1,5% Fe en orto-orto

Ultrasol® Micro Rexene® FeD6

DTPA

6,1

Liquid

0,2

H/F/S

Better quality in liquid form

Ultrasol® Micro Rexene® FeD12

DTPA

11,6

Chrystal

0,4

H/F/S

Better quality in dry form

 

Ultrasol® Micro Rexene® FeD3

DTPA

3,1

Liquid

0,3

S/H

Basic grade

Ultrasol® Micro Rexene® FeD7

DTPA

6,9

Micro-granular

0,7

S/H

Basic grade

Ultrasol® Micro Rexene® FeH4,5

HEDTA

4,5

Liquid

0,3

S

Standard in liquid form

Ultrasol® Micro Rexene® FeH13

HEDTA

12,8

Micro-granular

0,3

S

Dry, pure version

Ultrasol® Micro Rexene® FeH9

HEDTA

9,0

Micro-granular

0,6

S

Basic grade

Ultrasol® Micro Rexene® FeH8

EDTA

7,7

Liquid

0,3

F/S

Ammonium based

Ultrasol® Micro Rexene® FeE13

EDTA

13,3

Chrystal

0,2

S/F

Wide rage of use

Ultrasol® Micro Rexene® FeE6

EDTA

6,1

Liquid

0,3

F/S

Potash based

MANGANESE CHELATES (Mn)

Ultrasol® Micro Rexene® Mn6

EDTA

6,2

Liquid

0,2

F/H

Highly concentrated liquid

Ultrasol® Micro Rexene® Mn13

EDTA

12,8

Micro-granular

0,4

F/H

Dry, pure version

ZINC CHELATES (Zn)

Ultrasol® Micro Rexene® Zn9

EDTA

9,0

Liquid

0,3

F/H/S

Highly concentrated liquid

Ultrasol® Micro Rexene® Zn15

EDTA

14,8

Micro-granular

0,4

F/H/S

Dry, pure version

COOPER CHELATES (Cu)

Ultrasol® Micro Rexene® Cu9

EDTA

9,0

Liquid

0,3

F/H/S

Highly concentrated version

Ultrasol® Micro Rexene® Cu8

EDTA

8,0

Liquid

0,3

F/H/S

Highly concentrated

Ultrasol® Micro Rexene® Cu15

EDTA

14,8

Micro-granular

0,4

F/H/S

Dry, pure version

CALCIUM CHELATES (Ca)

Ultrasol® Micro Rexene® Ca3

EDTA

3,1p>

Liquid

0,1

F

Liquid form

Ultrasol® Micro Rexene® Ca10

EDTA

9,7

Micro-granular

0,4

F

Dry, pure version

MAGNESIUM CHELATES (Mg)

Ultrasol® Micro Rexene® Mg3

EDTA

2,6

Liquid

0,2

F

Liquid form

Ultrasol® Micro Rexene® Mg6

EDTA

6,2

Micro-granular

0,4

F

Dry, pure version

Increment to N

Increment response to N application in the table grape crop

Effect in:

Trail detail / Comments


Source: Kliewer & cook, 1971

Growth and foliar area

Thompson Seedless variety grown over perlite-vermiculite with Hoagland solution under different nutrient levels.


Source: Ahmeed et al, 1988

Bunch weight

It was determined that optimum N quantities are between 150 y 175 g/plant (Red Loomy variety, 12 year old crop over clay-loam soil with pH value of 8.2).


Source: Ahmeed et al, 1988

Bunch yield

It was determined that optimum N quantities are between 150 y 175 g/plant (Red Loomy variety, 12 year old crop over clay-loam soil with pH value of 8.2).


Source: Ewart,A. y Kliewer, W.,1977

Anthocyanins content in berries

Trail on 11 year old plants. It was determined that the precursor for the production of anthosyanins is formed in the leaves. Under N deficiencies, this synthesis can be reduced.


Source: Ahlawat et al, 1985

Botrytis susceptibility

Excess of nitrogen fertilization produce a vigorous growth which increase disease susceptibility such as Botrytis (grey mould) and powdery mildew), also insects such as phylloxera damaging roots and aphids or mites affecting buds or shoots.

Increment to Ca

Increment response to Ca application in the table grape crop

Effects in:

Trail detail / Comments


Source: Phosin, 1998 (Francia)

Root development

Ca applications during the season to increase the level in the tissues reduce losses during transport and storage in post-harvest.


Source: Phosin, 1998(Francia)

Fruit size

It is important to have an adequate Ca level mainly in the leaves at pre-flowering. The concentration increases through the season (from 1 to 4%). Near 40% of its absorption occurs between leaf emergence and fruit set. After fruit set and before veraison, another 30% is adsorbed and accumulated essentially in the leaves and bunches. The remaining 30% is absorbed after veraison, when the grapevines start lignifying.


Source: Singh & Kumar, 1989(India)


Source: Kumar & Cupta, 1987

Loss of weight Shattering at post-harvest

Foliar application on Perlette variety of 0.75% of Ca nitrate 10 days before harvest (storage at 1°C, 80% RH), proved that Ca decreases during maturity. This is due to that the mayor part of Ca is localized in the grape skin. Therefore, it is of great importance to keep the Ca level applying directly to the berry (India).


Source: Choundhury, Lima; Soares, Faria(1999),Brasil

Dehydration at post-harvest

The Italia variety was evaluated by a 1 to 5 scale for different dehydration levels of berries and rachis during post-harvest.


Source: Singh & Kumar, 1989(India)

Rooting incidence

Low Ca contents favor the incidence of rotting (India).


Source: Choundhury, Lima; Soares, Faria(1999),Brasil

Rooting at post-harvest

Rooting reduction at post-harvest. Study on Italia variety: pathologic deterioration according to different N sources (Brazil).


Source: Universidad de las Am&eacuet;ricas, Stgo de Chile con el patrocinio de Unifrutti Traders Company (1996/1997)

Berry strength

Estudio en Thompson Seedless. Se realizó un tratamiento temprano (Stopit, 3 aplicaciones en dosis de 5L/ha (baya de 4 mm; 8 días más tarde, y pinta) con 1600 L de agua, y un tratamiento tardío. Este consistió en 2 aplicaciones de Stopit (8 l/ha) a los 30 y 15 días antes de cosecha con 1600 l/ha de agua (Chile).



Source: Blake, 2003

Internal darkening in berries

Estudio en Thompson Seedless. Se realizó un tratamiento temprano(Stopit, 2 aplicaciones en dosis de 8l/ha (en pre-color) y 1 aplicación 15 días después, y un tratamiento tardío. Este consistió en 3 aplicaciones de Stopit (10 l/ha) 15 días entre cada una (Chile).


Source: Soza y Del Solar, 2004

Synergism between Ca, phyto-regulators, giberelic acid and coadyuvant

Better results are produced increasing calibers, weight, pressure and percentage of lighter color berries in Red Globe variety (by immersion) (Chile).


Source: Callejas, 2003

Ca content according to the applied hormone levels

Studies shown that Ca levels in berries are related to hormone levels applied.

Increment to K

Increment response to K application in the table grape crop

Effects in:

Trail detail / Comments


Source: Dhillon et al, 1999

Bunch and Berry weight

Weight increments of Berry and bunch between 24 and 44% have been demonstrated for potassium applications, with a maximum response with doses greater than 400 kg/ha (Perlette variety -8 years old – over sandy loam with pH value of 8.5 with application after pruning (India).



Source: Dhillon et al, 1999

Characteristics organoleptic of berry

Perlette variety – Anthocyaninas – over a Sandy loam soil with pH value of 8.5 with application after pruning (1993). It was demonstrated to obtain better flavor when increasing K application (India).


Source: Altindili, 1999


Source: Kumar & Cupta, 1987

Yield

Ten years old grape crop over Sandy loam soil (pH 7.45). Foliar application after flowering (June16 + July 1) (Turkey).


Source: Singh et al, 1999

Quality

Ten years old grape crop of Perlette variety, with 7 applications starting during fruit set (once a week), it is equal to one total application of 70 kg/ha of K. Potassium sulphate product at 1% (2 lt solution/plant = 10 kg/ha) (India).


Source: Reuveni & Reuveni, 1985

Disease control such as mildew

Seven applications were done against mildew in grape (Powdery mildew, Oidium tuckerii - asexual phase) and Uncinula necator (fase sexual phase) from a 10 cm bud. K compounds act as defense mechanism for the plant and directly affect fungi growth (South Africa).


Source: Bergmann, 1996

K:N Relation

High levels of K prevent tissue susceptibility to be affected by excessive growth due to over dose of N. Then, a high K:N relation reduces Botrytis incidence.


Source: Garcia et al, 1999

K/Ca + Mg Relation

This relation is as important as the K:N. The absorption primarily of K inhibits the one of Ca and Mg. An excess of any of them brings a deficit of some of them or both, with the consequence in quality and yield losses (France).


Source: Morris et al, 1993

Excessive application of K

This can induce Mg and Ca deficiencies. K (potassium sulphate g/plant/week) was applied from May 1th to September 1th in Condor variety to the soil as base, this for sprinkler irrigation (USA).


Source: Callejas, 2003; Soza, 2004

K levels in berry

The K content in berry is related to high hormone levels applied.


Source: Ruíz y Moyano, 1990

K deficiency and high levels of putrescine

A deficiency of K originates nutritional disorders. This deficiency in addition to high putrescine levels determine that nutritional disorder are shown (False deficiency of K) (Chile).

Increment to Mg

Increment response to Mg application in the table grape crop

Effects in:

Trail detail / Comments


Source: Beetz et al,1983

Source: Haub,1993

Incidence of Bunch stem necrosis (SBN)

Study with Riesling Patrón 5c of 6 years old, in sandy loam soil. Two foliar applications were done with magnesium sulphate (16% MgO) (dosis l/ha?) during the season, at 5 and 2% maturity. The yield increased due to the low in 1978? It was concluded that 2 to 3 foliar applications before veraison help to reduce this nutritional disorder.

In the figures: Mg effect reducing stem bunch necrosis of rachis and berries.

Potassium applications improve fruit quality

To assess the response of table grape to potassium fertilisation, a field test was performed to evaluate the effect of 3 doses of potassium, applied with Ultrasol® NKS and Ultrasol® SOP on fruit yield. The experiment took place at the Agrícola Viñedos Costa in the locality of Hermosillo, Sonora State, Mexico. The tested crop was a 13 years old Flame Seedless variety...Read more.
Phenological Stages



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Disclaimer:
All the information is given to the best of SQM's knowledge and is believed to be accurate. Your conditions of use and application of the suggested products and recommendations are beyond our control. There is no warranty regarding the accuracy of any given data or statements. SQM specifically disclaims any responsibility or liability relating to the use of the suggested products and recommendations and shall under no circumstances whatsoever, be liable for any special, incidental or consequential damages which may arise from such use.