Pepper

Pepper

Pepper belongs to the solanaceas family. There are five domesticated species from the Capsicum genera: Capsicum annuum (sweet pepper, “chile Serrano”, “chile jalapeño”); Capsicum chinense (“habanero”); Capsicum frutenscen (“tabasco”); Capsicum baccatum (“Christmas bells”) and Capsicum bubescens (“rocoto”).

Peppers can be classified according their flavor: sweet or spicy. Sweet peppers vary their shape and size; also present different color when reaching maturity, being yellow, orange or purple at maturity. Among the spicy peppers or “ajíes” (chile peppers), there is the Capsicum annuum, slightly spicy, used as well as fresh consumption than processed.

Pepper is a warm season horticulture, susceptible to frosts, and requires warmer days than tomato, even though less warm than eggplant (aubergine). Its ideal growing temperature range from 18 to 28º C. Generally, night temperatures determine the flowering and fruit setting processes, influencing the fruit size and number of seeds per fruit.

Table 1 shows the ideal temperatures, maximum and minimum, for different growing stages of the crop.

Main Nutrients
Prior to mention the determinant nutrients for obtaining a good quality and yield in the pepper crop, it is necessary to know the development stages of the plant. These are the following:

Seedling and young plant recently transplanted: In these stages, the initial formation of the areal plant part and the development of a strong root system, are produced.

Plant in vegetative growth: This occurs in the first 45 days..

Flowering and fruit set: Starts approximately 20 to 40 days after transplant and continues after the rest of the growing cycle.

Fruit development: The higher quantity of organic matter accumulation is obtained.

Physiological maturity and harvest: In average the fruit matures 80 days after transplant.
Nutritional Recommendation
The pepper crop nutrition can be performed in base of granular products (Qrop™) for soil applications, soluble products (Ultrasol®) for fertirrigation, or combinations of both complemented with foliar application products (Speedfol™). This selection will depend on the irrigation (dry land or furrow irrigation, drop irrigation), on the economy, convenience, nutrition availability and knowledge of the product.

The following table shows the Specialty Plan Nutrition available nutrients for meeting the nutritive requirements of the pepper crop.

Nutrients

Common name

Chemical formula

Caracteristics

≈ Preferd source

Nitrogen

Urea: Urea
Urea Phosphate

CO(NH2)2
CO(NH2)2 H3PO4

This product cannot be directly utilized by the plants; previously it is transformed to ammonium. It is the least efficient source of Nitrogen.

Ammonium: Ammonium Sulphate
Monoamonic (MAP)
Diamonic Phosphate (DAP)

(NH4)2SO4
NH4H2PO4
(NH4)2HPO4

This is inmovil in the soul, restricting its availability to the root zone. Its assimilation by the plant is slow. Since it is a cation, competes with other cations for he roots absorption.

Nitrate
Potassium Nitrate
SOlid Calcium Nitrate
Liquid Calcium Nitrate
Magnesium Nitrate
Amonium Nitrate
Nitric Acid

KNO3
(5(Ca(NO3)2) NH4NO3 10H2O
Ca(NO3)2 en soluciónMg(NO3)2 6H<2O
NH4NO3
HNO3

This is easily and rapidly assimilated by the plants. Since it is a cation, promotes the absorption of other nutrients (cation: K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Nh4+). The ammonium as well the nitrate can be absorbed by the plants, therefore the ammonium / nitrate relation must be considered, wich will vary in function to the specie, temperature and the pH in the root zone.

Phosphorus

Monoamonic Phosphate (MAP)

NH4H2PO4

For soils with pH > 7.5

Diamonic Phosphate (DAP)

(NH4)2HPO4

For soils with pH 6 - 7.5

Monopotasic Phosphate (MKP)

KH2PO4

 

Triple Superphosphate (TSP)

Mainly Ca(H2PO4)2

For soils with pH > 6

Urea Phosphate

CO(NH2)2 H3PO4

Strong acidifying solid

Phosphoric Acid

H3PO4

Strong acidifying liquid

Potassium

Potassium Nitrate

KNO3

This ideal potassium fertilizer in all growing stages, due to its high solubility

Sodium Potassium Nitrate

KN3 NaNO3

Contains 19% of Sodium. It imporves °Brix and dry matter content in the fruits.

Potassium Sulphate

K2SO4

It is recommended for the final growing stage.

Potassium Bicarbonate

KHCO3

It is recommended for correcting pH (increasing).

Potassium Chloride

KCl

It is used for increasing the tomato flavor.

Calcium

Calcium Nitrate (solid)

(5Ca(NO3)2) NH4NO3 10H2O

It is the most used water soluble Calcium source contains some ammonium for pH.

Calcium Nitrate (liquid)

Ca(NO3)2 in solution

It does not contain Ammunium

Calcium Chloride

CaCl2

Is used for increasing the tomato flavor.

Chloride

CaCl2
MgCl2
KCl
NaCl

 

It is not recommended for applying to peeper crop due to its high sensitivity to salinity in the root zone. Also, it can cause absorption competition with other anions in the root zone.

Magnesium

Magnesium Sulphate

MgSO4 7H2)

It is most used Magnesium source. It cannot be mixed with Calcium in the mother tank.

Magnesium Nitrate

Mg(NO3)2 6H2O

It has rapid and high solubility

Sulphur

Magnesium Sulphate

MgSO4 7H2O

To complete the Sulphate and Magnesium demand.

Potassium Sulphate (SOP)

K2SO4

Can be used to supply the remainder of the Sulphur demand and part of the Potassium demand in pepper nutrition.

Ammonium Sulphate

(NH4)2SO4

Excess doses should be avoided in order to prevent salinity and nutritive unbalance

Sulphuric Acid

H2SO4

Excess doses should be avoided in order to prevent salinity and nutritive unbalance


Besides these nutrition of direct application previously mentioned, there are NPK granular and soluble mixes in the marker which are available for each phenological stage (Ultrasol® Started, Ultrasol® Development, Ultrasol® Growing, Ultrasol® Production, Ultrasol® Multipurpose, Ultrasol® Color, Ultrasol® Quality, Ultrasol® Post-Harvest, Ultrasol® Fruit and Ultrasol® Special and also by crop (Ultrasol® Sweet Pepper, in this case). There is a special segmentation in Qrop™, the plant nutrition line of specialty for direct soil application.

The following table shows products based on microelements which are available for supplying the nutritive requirements of the pepper crop.

Nutrient

Main Sources

Remarks

Iron

EDTA

When pH < 6 and as foliar

DTPA

When pH < 7

EDDHA / EDDHMA

When pH < 7

Zinc

EDTA

Dissolves easier than Sulphate

Sulphate

 

Manganese

EDTA

Dissolves easier than Sulphate

Sulphate

 

Copper

EDTA

Dissolves easier than Sulphate

Sulphate

 

Boron

Boric acid

Acidifying effect. Plants absorb Boron only as boric acid, thus making in the most efficient Boron source.

Sodium borate

Alkaline reaction

Ulexite

A Sodium Calcium borate with 32% B2O3 for progressive release of Boron. This reduces the risk of boron toxicity and secures a long period of Boron supple to the plant.

Molybdenum

Sodium Molybdate

Sodium Molybdate is the cheaper source

Ammonium Molybdate

 


For calculating nutrition application doses, it is important considering the nutrient absorption efficiency with the irrigation system to be used (drop or furrow, as example), subtract the present nutrient reserves in the water and soil, and nutrient requirements in each plant developing stages.
Response to the application
Response to the application of Specialty Plant Nutrition products in the pepper crop

K, Ca and Mg absorption by different organs fertilized with ammonium and nitrates.

Organ

N Source

Nutrient Content in Dry Matter (meq/100g)

K

Ca

Mg

Leaf

NO3

58

161

30

 

NH4

29

62

25

Pedicel

NO3

176

126

38

 

NH4

90

61

17

Stem

NO3

162

86

35

 

NH4

54

50

18

Root

NO3

93

44

40

 

NH4

43

38

11

Source: Xu et al, 2001

Higher K, Ca and Mg levels were found in various organs of sweet pepper when the crop was nourished with N sources base on nitrates rather than ammonium.

Application of four different concentrations of total N and four proportions of nitric N and ammonium N in three crop stages of sweet pepper: Stage I, vegetative; Stage II, fruit set and Stage III, fruit development

Effect in the N concentration change at flowering and fruit set in two seasons: Autumn – Winter (a) and Spring - Summer (b).

Autumn - Winter

N (mM) in the growing stage

Lenght of croos pollination (days)

Lenght of fruit set (days)

I

II

III

1 - 12

26 - 37

Total

1 - 12

26 - 37

Total

Number of fruit set per plant

Number of fruit set per plant

3

6

9

7,6 a

11,5 a

29 a

7,1 a

2,7 a

12,4 a

6

6

6

4,5 b

8,9 a

22,8 b

4,2 b

2,9 a

11,0 ab

9

6

3

6,3 ab

7,7 a

22,8 ab

5,4 ab

2,1 ab

11,5 ab

3

3

3

7,2 ab

6,6 a

20,6 b

6,8 ab

1,0 b

9,2 b


Spring - Summer

N (mM) in the growing stage

Lenght of croos pollination (days)

Lenght of fruit set (days)

I

II

III

1 - 12

22 - 33

Total

1 - 12

22 - 33

Total

Number of fruit set per plant

Number of fruit set per plant

3

6

9

6,3 a

14.9 b

29,6 a

3,4 a

10,2 a

18,6 a

6

6

6

6,8 a

16,3 b

30,9 ab

5,0 a

7,7 ab

17,6 a

9

6

3

7,4 a

17,4 b

32,4 ab

4,2 ab

6,9 b

16,6 a/p>

12

12

12

6,9 a

22,3 a

37,1 b

3,4 a

6,1 b

17,8 a


a) Autumn - Winter Period: Reduction in the N concentration (3mM) in the vegetative period brings forward flowering and fruit set in the first 12 days of cross pollination. The gradual increment of 3mM to 9 mM obtained the larger N° of flowers and fruit set. Under the N levels (3-3-3) in the 3 stages gave the lower values for flowering and fruit set.

b) Spring – Summer: The N concentration did not influenced in the early flowering nor did the fruit set in the first 12 days of cross pollination. High N concentration (12-12-12 mM) increased flowering but reduced the N° of fruit set.

Effect in the ammonium concentration change in flowering and fruit set in two seasons: Autumn (c)– Winter and Spring – Summer (d).

Autumn - Winter

N-NH4 (%) in the growing stage

Lenght of croos pollination (days)

Lenght of fruit set (days)

I

II

III

1 - 12

26 - 37

Total

1 - 12

26 - 37

Total

Number of fruit set per plant

Number of fruit set per plant

0

0

0

7,2 a

7,3 a

24,9 a

5,9 a

2,4 a

11,8 a

0

15

30

7,9 a

2,8 b

16,0 b

6,9 a

0,2 a

9,7 b

30

15

0

6,4 a

8,5 a

23,6 a

5,6 a

2,3 a

10,9 ab

50

50

50

5,7 a

8,1 ab

22,8 ab

4,7 a

1,6 ab

10,1 ab



Spring - Summer

N-NH4 (%) in the growing stage

Lenght of croos pollination (days)

Lenght of fruit set (days)

I

II

III

1 - 12

26 - 37

Total

1 - 12

26 - 37

Total

Number of fruit set per plant

Number of fruit set per plant

0

0

0

5,1 b

16,8 ab

28,9 a

3,8 c

6,2 a

13,4 b

0

15

30

6,3 b

14,7 ab

32,1 a

4,4 bc

7,2 a

17,4 a

30

15

0

7,6 a

19,5 a

33,6 a

6,6 a

7,8 a

18,0 a

50

50

50

7,3 a

14,1 b

31,7 a

5,4 ab

5,7 a

14,0 ab


a) Autumn – Winter Period: The N form applied (ammonium) did not affect flowering and fruit set in the first 12 days of cross pollination. The increasing proportion of ammonium (0-15-30%) damaged the group of flowers pollinated afterward and the fruit set during the days 26 to 37.

b) Spring – Summer Period: High ammonium levels at the stage I (30 and 50% of the total N), encouraged early flowering and fruit set in the first 12 days of cross pollination. High ammonium level in all stages (50-50-50) affected flowering in all stages after the cross pollination.

When nitrate was applied as the only source of N, a reduction of total fruit set was obtained.

Response to the application of SPN products in the pepper crop

Pepper fruit maturity influenced by ammonium proportion change during the season.
Days to harvest

a) Autumn - Winter Period Low N supplied (3-3-3 mM) produced the largest yield during the first 28 days of harvest. High concentrations at the season starts and then low concentrations in later crop stages (9-6-3 mM), severely reduced yields.

The largest increment was obtained with a gradual supplying (3-6-9 mM). In this season (autumn-winter), low concentration induced early flowering and high concentrations at late stages, are necessary for fruit development.

In the Spring – Summer season, the greatest pollinated fruits were harvested in the 3 first collections.

b) Spring – Summer season In the autumn-winter Season as well as in the spring-summer, a higher total yield was obtained when ammonium concentration was reduced from 30 to 0% (only applying nitrate) during the fruit growing stage. In spring-summer, high N concentrations (9-6 mM) are required and an ammonium concentration of 30 to 15% during the vegetative growth and fruit set.

Apparently, in the spring-summer season, the N concentration changes more affect the flowering and the fruit set length rather than the total Nº of fruit set and the total fruit yield.

Interaction among different Ca and B levels in saline conditions and BER incidence.

Calcium/Salt (ppm)

Boron (ppm)

Harvest Marketable (kg)

BER Incidence

150 / 1.000

0,5

1,25

-

50 / 1.000

0,5

0,55

++

150 / 1.000

0

0

+


A greater marketable production harvested and a lower BER incidence was obtained with relative high Ca and B levels.
Study conducted in "Kapia"
Study conducted in “Kapia” pepper of industrial use, grown on open field

A traditional nutrition program was compared with a balanced fertirrigation program recommended by SQM (Izmir, Turkey).

SQM nutrition program. Includes higher K, Ca and B quantities.

Fertilisers

Dose kg/ha

kg/ha

N

P2O5

K2O

CaO

MgO

S

B

Qrop™ SOP

80

41

14

Qrop™ DAP

200

36

92

Ultrasol® K

80

11

36

Subtotal base dressing

360

47

92

77

0

0

14

0

Ultrasol® K

520

70

239

Ultrasol® MAP

90

11

55

Ultrasol® Calcium

420

65

111

Bórax

4

0,61

Ammonium Nitrate

280

92

Subtotal Fertigation

1.314

239

55

239

111

0

0

0,61

Grand total

1.674

285

147

316

111

0

14

0.61

Nutrient ratio

1,9

1,0

2,2

0,8

0

0,1

0,004


Tradition nutrition program.

Fertilisers

Dose kg/ha

kg/ha

N

P2O5

K2O

CaO

MgO

S

B

15-15-15

600

90

90

90

DAP

100

18

46

Subtotal base dressing

700

108

136

90

0

0

0

0

Ultrasol® K

160

22

73

Urea

150

69

Ultrasol® Calcium

30

4

8

Amonium Nitrate

240

79

Subtotal fertigation

580

173

0

73

8

0

0

0

Grand total

1.280

281

136

163

8

0

0

0

Nutrient ratio

2,1

1,0

1,2

0,1

0

0

0


Differences among SQM nutrition and traditional programs.

 

Dose kg/ha

kg/ha

N

P2O5

K2O

CaO

MgO

S

B

Difference SQM-traditional

394

4

11

154

103

0

14

1

Difference SQM-traditional

31%

1%

8%

94%

1.300%

Study conducted in fresh pepper
Study conducted in fresh pepper cultivated on open field. A traditional nutrition program was compared with a balanced program recommended by SQM (Sinaloa, Mexico).

Growing stages of sweet pepper.

Days

Stage

Accumulated days

12-09-2001

1

Transplant

0

29-11-2001

2

Harvest initiation

77

08-03-2002

3

Harvest final

175


SQM Nutrition program. Includes larger k and Ca, and lower P quantities.

Stage

SPN

Application N°

Dose / Application (kg/ha)

Total Applied (kg/ha)

Nutrient Supply (kg/ha)

N

P2O5

K2O

S

CaO

MgO

Base application

Qropmix™ MAP

1

400

400

88

124

8

Application 1

Ultrasol® MAP

1

18

18

2

11

Ultrasol® Micro B

1

1,8

2

Urea

1

36

36

17

Ultrasol® Calcium

1

25

25

4

7

Ultrasol® K

1

100

100

12

45

Application 2

Ultrasol® MAP

11

18

198

24

121

Ultrasol® Micro B

11

1,8

20

Urea

11

36

396

182

Ultrasol® Calcium

11

25

275

43

72

Ultrasol® K

2

50

100

34

Total Nutrient Supply

2.670

537

256

540

0

78

8



SQM program had greater production harvested during each recollection date compared to the traditional program.

Traditional nutrition program.

Stage

SPN

Application N°

Dose / Application (kg/ha)

Total Applied (kg/ha)

Nutrient Supply (kg/ha)

N

P2O5

K2O

S

CaO

MgO

Base application

Mix 24-33-0

1

400

400

96

132

8

1

Ammonium Nitrate

1

300

300

102

Potassium Sulfate

6

70

420

210

71

Magnesium Nitrate

6

30

180

20

27

2

Urea

6

80

480

221

10-34-0

6

100

600

60

204

3

Ammonium Nitrate

2

100

200

68

Total Nutrient Supply

2.580

567

336

210

71

0

35


Comparison between yields (boxes/ha) obtained in the SQM and the traditional program.
Yield
Comparative results between SQM and traditional programs.

SQM

Traditional

Nutrient cost (US$/ha)

1.020

680

Difference (US$/ha)

340

Boxes/ha

3.550

2.673

Income (7 US$/ha)

24.850

18.711

Difference (US$/ha)

6.139

Total Yield (kg/ha)

71.000

53.460

Cost: Benedit relationship

18,1 : 1


Even though, the production costs of the SQM program were almost double than the costs of the traditional program, the net income was larger than the traditional program.
Emphasis of the Potassium and Calcium
Emphasis of the Potassium and Calcium on pepper crop

Potassium and calcium play an important role for the pepper crop, being determinant for obtaining a good quality and high yielding crop. The following table shows a summary of the functions of these two elements in the pepper crop.

Parameters

Function in the plant

Potassium

Related with quality and production.
Roles in: Synthesis of proteins, photosynthetic process and transport of sugars from the leaves to the fruits.
Good supply of Potassium = high yield, high soluble solids contain at harvest.
Approximately 50% of absorbed Potassium is found in the fruits.
When regulating the stomata aperture and closing, a good supply of Potassium will allow obtaining a better water use efficiency under stress conditions.
Involved in the licopeno photosynthesis (red color of pepper).
An increment in the Potassium dose:
Increases the fruit number and weight.
Increases the skin thickness of the fruits.
Increases the proportion of good quality fruits.

Calcium

It is essential for the cell wall and the plant structure. Ninety percent is found in the cell wall, acting as cohesion factor and support of the plant structure.
Maintains the integrity of cellular membranes.
Acts as plant defense mechanisms, detecting and reacting toward external stresses.
It is the key element for fruit strength of pepper.
Retards the senescence of leaves.
A constant supply of Calcium in soluble form (e.g. Calcium nitrate) can help to prevent apical necrosis development (BER) in the fruits.



The following table presents principal effects produced by K and Ca deficits in the pepper plant.

Parameters

Main Problems in the Development of Pepper

K

Ca

Plant Behavior

Low yield

X

X

Heterogeneity size and irregular maturity

X

 

Limited fruit set

X

 

Small tomato

X

 

External Quality

Lack of color

X

 

Soft fruit / without strength

X

X

Limited storage / limited shelf life

X

X

Internal Quality (flavor)

Low °Brix (soluble solids)

X

X

Lock of acidity

X

 

Desorders and Defects

BER (blossom end rot)

 

X

Splitting (crackings)

X

X

Sun stroke

X

X

Tolerance and Resistance

Moisture condition (drought and transpiration)

X

X

Diseases (fungi)

X

X

Salinity

X

X


Nutrients´ accumulation in the dry matter of different parts in nutrient absorption % per plant.

Plant Parts

Nutrients Contain in Dry Matter %

N

P

K

Ca

Mg

Marketing product

50

60

50

15

25

Fruit setting

7

9

7

3

5

Subtotal generative parts

57

69

57

18

30

Foliage

25

17

21

60

45

Stem

13

10

18

17

21

Raiz

5

4

4

5

4

Subtotal generative parts

43

31

43

82

70

Total parts of plant

100

100

100

100

100


It is important to indicate that N, P and K are accumulated in 50% in the fruits. In relation to N, studies show that the ammonium levels in the plant influence the flowering time and the flowers´ number.

In any case, to prevent apical necrosis (BER), it is advisable not to apply more than 20% of N in ammonium form and at least 80% in form of nitrate. In hydroponic systems, no more than 7% in form of ammonium should be added.

P also should be related with flower formation; since there is a relationship between the flowers´formation and the cytokinin levels, which in turn are related with P levels in the plant.

The number of fruit set will depend on the genetic factors, light and temperature, physiological load, hormones present and nutrition. The excess of N should be avoided and an adequate B availability to promote a good fruit set should be considered. Besides, the fruit number is influenced by P and Zn.
Pepper grown in soil
Absorción de nutrientes y nutrición de pimiento cultivado en suelo

Se presentan a continuación curvas de absorción de nutrientes por cada elemento nutritivo y por cada fase fenológica. La curva de absorción de nutrientes son la base para la elaboración de programas nutritivos.

Cultivado en el suelo al aire libre

Absorción de N,P,K, Ca y Mg durante el ciclo de crecimiento para un rendimiento estimado de 100 ton/ha (Rincón et al, 1993).

Período días

N

P2O5

K2O

CaO

MgO

N

P2O5

K2O

CaO

MgO

kg / ha / día

kg / ha / período

0-35

0,05

0,009

0,10

0,06

0,025

2

0

3

2

1

35-55

0,35

0,07

0,80

0,35

0,17

7

1

16

7

3

55-70

1,20

0,23

2,25

0,98

0,45

18

3

34

15

7

70-85

1,30

0,23

2,60

0,98

0,41

20

3

39

15

6

85-100

2,60

0,78

4,82

2,80

1,41

39

12

72

42

21

100-120

2,75

0,57

5,50

1,12

1,16

55

11

110

22

23

120-140

3,75

1,08/p>

4,82

1,40

1,00

75

22

96

28

20

140-165

3,15

0,78

4,80

1,68

1,19

79

19

120

42

30

Total/100t

 

294

73

491

173

111

Total/ton

 

2,9

0,7

4,9

1,7

1,1

 

N

P

K

Ca

Mg

Total/100t

 

294

32

407

123

67

Total/ton

 

2,9

0,3

4,1

1,2

0,7


Cultivado en suelo bajo invernadero

Valores objetivos para la fertilización de base según método de extracción por volumen 1:2 o sistema holandés en pimiento dulce cultivado en los Países Bajos.

Pimiento

N

K

Ca

Mg

SO4

H2PO4

 

mmole/l

Valores objetivos fertilización de base

4,5

2

2,5

1,2

2

0,1


Pimiento en suelo

N-NO3

K

Ca

Mg

S

P

 

ppm

Valores objetivos fertilización de base

63

78

100

29

64

3


Solución nutritiva estándar para fertirriego en pimiento dulce cultivado en los Países Bajos (Van den Bos et al, 1999).

Pimiento

NO3

K

Ca

Mg

SO4

H2PO4

NH4

B

 

mmole/l

µmole/l

Solución nutritiva estandar

8,4

4

2

1

1

 

0,4

10


Pimiento en suelo

N-NO3

K

Ca

Mg

S

P

NNH4

B

 

ppm

ppm

Solución nutritiva estándar

118

156

60

24

32

0

6

0,11



Valores objetivos de nutrientes deseados en la solución de suelo como medida en un volumen extracto de 1:2 (Van den Bos et al, 1999).

Pimiento en suelo

N

K

Ca

Mg

SO4

H2PO4

B

 

mmole/l

µmole/l

Volumen extracto de 1:2

4,5

2

2,5

1,2

2

> 0,1

21 - 40


Pimiento en suelo

N-NO3

K

Ca

Mg

S

P

B

 

ppm

ppm

Volumen extracto de 1:2

63

78

100

29

64

> 3

0,23 - 0,43

Greenhouse substrate wood fiber
Absorption of nutrients and nutrition of pepper grown in greenhouse substrate wood fiber
In substrate under greenhouse.

The following figure shows nutrients´ absorption by the pepper crop in substrate under greenhouse. (Heuberger y Schnitzler, 1998).

Days after plantingDays after planting

Standard nutritive solution.

Pepper with open drainage in rock fiber, 1 cycle/year

NO3

K

Ca

Mg

SO4

H2PO4

NH4

Fe

Mn

Zn

B

Cu

Mo

mmole/l

μmole/l

Standard nutrient solution

15,5

6,75

5

1,5

1,75

1,25

0,5

15

10

5

30

0,75

0,5

Changes per phenological phase

1 Saturation of rock fibes

16,5

4,8

5,8

2,3

1,8

1,3

0,5

15

10

5

46

0,75

0,5

2 First weeks

15,5

5,8

5,5

1,5

1,8

1,3

0,5

15

10

5

30

0,75

0,5

3 Until harvest initiation

15,3

6,8

5,0

1,5

1,8

1,3

0,5

15

10

5

30

0,75

0,5

4 With high fruit load

16,5

7,8

5,0

1,5

1,8

1,3

0,5

15

10

5

30

0,75

0,5

Pepper with open drainage in rock fiber, 1 cycle/year

N-NO3

K

Ca

Mg

S

P

N - NH4

Fe

Mn

Zn

B

Cu

Mo

ppm

ppm

Standard nutrient solution

217

263

200

36

56

39

7

0,84

0,55

0,33

0,32

0,048

0,048

Changes per phenological phase

1 Saturation of rock fiber

231

185

230

55

56

39

7

0,84

0,55

0,33

0,50

0,0048

0,0048

2 First weeks

217

224

220

36

56

39

7

0,84

0,55

0,33

0,32

0,0048

0,0048

3 Until harvest initiation

214

263

200

36

56

47

7

0,84

0,55

0,33

0,32

0,0048

0,0048

4 With high fruit load

231

302

200

36

56

39

7

0,84

0,55

0,33

0,32

0,0048

0,0048



Objective values of desire nutrients in the root zone.

Pepper with open drainage in rock fiber, 1 cycle/year

NO3

K

Ca

Mg

SO4

H2PO4

NH4

Fe

Mn

Zn

B

Cu

mmole/l

μmole/l

Objetive value in the root zone

17

5

8,5

3

3

1,2

< 0,5

15

5

7

80

0,7


Pepper with open drainage in rock fiber, 1 cycle/year

NO3

K

Ca

Mg

S

P

NH4

Fe

Mn

Zn

B

Cu

ppm

ppm

Objetive value in the root zone

238

195

340

73

96

37

< 7

0,84

0,27

0,46

0,86

0,045

Phenological Stages


Info by crop:

 
Disclaimer:
All the information is given to the best of SQM's knowledge and is believed to be accurate. Your conditions of use and application of the suggested products and recommendations are beyond our control. There is no warranty regarding the accuracy of any given data or statements. SQM specifically disclaims any responsibility or liability relating to the use of the suggested products and recommendations and shall under no circumstances whatsoever, be liable for any special, incidental or consequential damages which may arise from such use.