Apple
Apple

Apple tree (Malus domestica Borkh.) belongs to the rosaceous family. They are trees with a round shape canopy, straight truck reaching 2 – 2.5 m height, with a smooth bark of green ash color. Branches are inserted in a wide angle to the stem. The tree has oval shape leaves and hermaphrodite flowers with pale rose or white color. Flowering occurs in spring and the fruit is a round pome with short peduncle and many seeds inside of bright brown color. The root system is superficial; as a result trees can survive in shallow soils.

Apple is once of the sweet fruit species of larger distribution at the world level, due to its easily adaptation to different climates and soils types. It has a large nutritional and therapeutic value, and has a great industrial use.

The most known varieties are: Royal Gala, Fuji, Pink lady, Granny Smith, Galiaxis, Red Delicious and Golden Delicious, among others. It is planted during the resting sap period, which goes from leaf fall (autumn) until the new sprouting time (spring). The planting frame would depend on the selected variety and formation system, being the most common 2 to 3 m distance. Planting densities fluctuate between 1.500 and 3.000 trees/ha in the axis systems and 1.000 to 1.700 trees/ha in the trellis systems.

The apple tree withstand low temperatures, it prefers humid climates instead of dried ones. Flowers are sensible to late spring frosts. It requires around 1.000 hours of cold temperature for flowering induction.

Regarding irrigation, it is important an adequate supply of moisture with frequent irrigations from sprouting initiation to the autumn, avoiding the risk of leaves fall and premature fruits drop.

Moisture requirements of the apple tree have a critical period, since the flower formation temporarily coincides with buds and fruit formation, consequently the plant needs considerable amount of water between the complete fructification and maturity initiation.

When fruits have reached their maximum weight and flower buds have finished the first developing phase, it is necessary to detain the year growing which is favors by temperature declining.

An adult tree requires, in general terms, between 200 and 300 l of water per kg of fruit produced per year.

Main Nutrients
The application of balanced nutrition aims to ensure adequate aerial and root growth to store as much carbohydrate in specialized organs. Adequate nutrition of the crop is a key factor in obtaining good harvests.

To achieve an appropriate nutrition plan in apple is necessary to know the nutrient demand in quantity and type of nutrient. It is also important to know the role of each nutrient for crop growth, yield and quality of production.

the table summarizes the nutritional standard of adequate soil for the apple tree crop.

Element

Adequate (> ppm)

Phosphorus

30

Potassium

120

Calcium

3.200

Sulphur

12

Magnesium

96

Manganese

1,0

Iron

4,5

Zinc

1,0

Boron

1,0

Molybdenum

0,2

Copper

0,5

Nitrogen is not present in the table due to its great lability (instability), which make it a bad fertility predictor of soils in fruit orchards.

Due to the nutrients´quantity present in the soil is not enough information for developing a fertilizer plan, it is important to consider the relationship among these nutrients. Then, the cation exchange capacity (CEC) plays a determine role, showing the cations´quantity (Ca, Mg, Na and K) that can be absorbed by soil components.

Other factors to be considered when developing a fertilizer plan are: The expected fruit load, the treetop and total foliage development, the removal of pruning residues, the N mineralization rate and other supply fertilizer sources (irrigation water).

As follows, the annual macronutrients extraction is shown in an apple tree orchard of 45 ton/ha production.

 

Mineral element (kg/ha)

 

N

P

K

Ca

Mg

Return to soil
fallen leaves
fallen flowers and fruits
Pruning wood

53

5.2

45.7

93.8

16.5

Deposited in the tree
Sprout and root growing

14.6

3.5

1.4

36.8

1.8

Fruit harvest

15.7

4.7

52.2

3.3

 

TOTAL ANUAL

83.3

13.4

99.3

133.9

19.9

Impact on yield
Speedfol™ Colour SP impact on yield, maturity and quality

Today, the Fuji apple variety accounts for more than 70 % of the apple production in China. “Time to report on 2 recent trials to show the world how Fuji apples and Fuji growers benefit from Speedfol™ Colour SP” writes Susan Gu, SQM’s Sales Coordinator for Specialty Plant Nutrition in China.

The 2 trials ran from late August till early October 2009 at 2 orchards in the Shandong province. Prior to the trials, both the control and the treated plots on both locations had been foliarly treated with Ultrasol® Magnum Flex Production and Ultrasol® Calmag. It should also be noted that all Speedfol™ Colour SP applications took place when the fruits were bagged. Table 1 shows an overview of the main data at the 2 locations.

On both trial sites the control plot was flood irrigated with well water only, whereas the treated plots each received 400 g/mu of Speedfol™ Colour SP at 3 consecutive times. The applications on site 1 took place on 14th August, 26th August and 18th September. On site 2, Speedfol™ Colour SP was applied on 11th August, 26th August and 18th September.

Trial site 1
Sitio de ensayo 1

Parameters
Parámetros

Trial site 2
Sitio de ensayo 2

Sun Daoqiang

Grower's name
Nombre del agricultor

Chi Lianqiang

Dachaijia, Xiaomenjia, Penglai, Shandong

Location
Lugar

Dachijia, Xiaomenjia, Penglai, Shadong

Fuji

Apple variety
Variedad de Manzana

Fuji

4 mu= 2.668 m²

Trial area
Area de ensayo

3 mu= 2.001 m²

17 years - 17 años

Orchard age
Edad del manzanar

19 years - 19 años

45 trees/mu
45 árboles/mu

Planting density
Densidad de plantación

35 trees/mu
35 árboles/mu

sandy loam
franco arenoso

Soil
Suelo

Sandy loam
franco arenoso

flood
riego rodado

Irrigation system
Sistema de riego

flood
riego rodado

well water
agua de pozo

Irrigation water
Agua de riego

well water
agua de pozo

1 mu = 667m² • 15 mu = 1 ha

Table 1. Summary table of the 2 trial sites.

Speedfol™ Colour SP Has Positive Impact on Fruit Yield, Maturity, Colouring and Quality of Fuji Apples and Creates More Net Income for Growers.

Trial results and conclusions.

The results clearly show that after 3 applications with Speedfol™ Colour SP both growers obtained larger and heavier fruits with higher sugar content (Table 2).

The results also indicated that the treated fruits matured and coloured 3 to 7 days more rapidly, showed more uniformity in colour and had a higher density. The apples treated with Speedfol™ Colour SP could thus be brought to the market at an earlier stage where they were sold at a higher price which in turn raised the net income of the growers (Table 3).

Trial site 1
Sitio de ensayo 1

Parameters
Parámetros

Trial site 2
Sitio de ensayo 2

Control
Testigo

Speedfol™
Colour SP

Difference
Diferencia

Control
Testigo

Speedfol™
Colour SP

Difference
Diferencia

1.000

1.270

+ 270

Fertiliser costs (RMB/mu)
Costos de fertilizantes (RMB/mu)

900

1.100

+200

3.500

3.650

+ 150 (+4%)

Yield (kg/mu)
Rendimiento (kg/mu)

3.400

3.600

+200 (+6%)

5,0

5,1

+ 0,1 (+2%)

Obtained market price (RMB/kg)
Precio de mercado obtenido (RMB/kg)

5,0

5,1

+0,1 (+2%)

17.500

18.615

+ 1.115 (+6%)

Gross income (RMB/mu)
Ingresos brutos (RMB/mu)

17.000

18.360

+ 1.360 (+8%)

13.000

13.845

+ 845 (+43)

Net income (RMB/mu)
Ingresos netos (RMB/mu)

12.000

13.160

+ 1.160 (+10%)

1 mu = 667 m² • 15 mu = 1 ha

Table 2. Table featuring the results for both trial sites. All dates are observation dates.

Trial site 1
Sitio de ensayo 1

Parameters
Parámetros

Trial site 2
Sitio de ensayo 2

Control
Testigo

Speedfol™
Colour SP

Difference
Diferencia

Control
Testigo

Speedfol™
Colour SP

Difference
Diferencia

21-09-2009

Lateral diameter (mm)
Diámetro lateral (mm)

29-09-2009

72,8

74,1

1,3 (+1,8%)

68,8

78,8

10,0 (+14,5)

21-09-2009

Longitudinal diameter (mm)
Diámetro longitudinal (mm)

29-09-2009

58,7

59,3

0,6 (+8,8%)

58,1

64,5

6,4 (+11,0%)

31-10-2009

Average fruit weight (g)
Peso de fruta promedio (g)

03-11-2009

217

236

19 (+8,8%)

217

235

18 (+8,3%)

31-10-2009

Average sugar content (°Brix)
Contenido de azúcar promedio (°Brix)

03-11-2009

7,7

10,0

2,3 (+30%)

7,7

10,1

2,4 (+31,2%)

Table 3. Economic aspects of the applications for both trial sites.

Speedfol™ Colour SP has positive impact on fruit yield, maturity, colouring and quality of Fuji apples and creates more net income for growers.
Apple
Figure 1. Trial site 2. 21st October 2009. After the 3 applications and removal of the fruit bags. The apples on the right, treated with Ultrasol® Colour SP, clearly have a more uniform and more outspoken colour than the untreated apples on the left.
Requirements of the Soil
Similarly to the pear tree, the apple tree is a highly sensible crop to salinity. In relation to the soil, the table presents the requirements of optimum and critical soils for pomaceous (pome fruit trees).

Tree Specie

Depth (cm)

pH

Salinity
(mmhos/cm)

Texture

Phereatic level
(water table)

Stoniness (%)

Loose subsoil

Capacted subsoil

Min

Opt.

Max.

Critic

Tolerant

Min

Opt

 

Citric

Opt.

Citric

Opt.

 

Apple

25

>80

45 - 60¹

>110

4,3

5,5-7

8,9

4,8

1,8

Medium fine to coarse

50¹

>70

35-50

Pear

25

>80

45 - 60²

>110

4,3

5,5-7

8,9

4,8

1,8

Medium fine to coarse

50²

>70

35-50

Speedfol™ Colour SP impact on yield, maturity and quality

Today, the Fuji apple variety accounts for more than 70 % of the apple production in China. “Time to report on 2 recent trials to show the world how Fuji apples and Fuji growers benefit from Speedfol™ Colour SP” writes Susan Gu, SQM’s Sales Coordinator for Specialty Plant Nutrition in China... Read More...

Phenological Stage

The apple tree presents three clearly different phenological phases:

• Vegetative growing to post fruit set: This phase last approximately 90 days. It begins with sprouting, then comes a rapid growing phase of the aerial and root parts, and finishes at the end of spring when stars a strong competition for carbohydrates between buds and fruits recently set.

• Fruit growing: This phase demands a great water and nutrients quantity. Growing stops almost complete in the phase.

• Post-harvest: It takes between 20 and 50 days and corresponds to the period between fruits´ recollection and leaves´ drop. In this period the second root growing peak is produced. It is important to apply fertilizer in this phase to count with more reserve source in the rest phase and for the following sprouting, reaching a supply of around 40 to 50% of N, and 30-35% of P and K required.

The figure shows the roots, fruits and sprouts growing curves.

Apple



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All the information is given to the best of SQM's knowledge and is believed to be accurate. Your conditions of use and application of the suggested products and recommendations are beyond our control. There is no warranty regarding the accuracy of any given data or statements. SQM specifically disclaims any responsibility or liability relating to the use of the suggested products and recommendations and shall under no circumstances whatsoever, be liable for any special, incidental or consequential damages which may arise from such use.